#MemberMonday: Janice Gunther Martin

JGM & donkey at Versailles
This was actually taken at Versailles. Why spend all your time looking at palaces and gardens when you can also go see farm animals?

Education

University of Notre Dame
PhD Candidate, History
MA, History

University of Connecticut
MA, History

University of Pennsylvania
MS, Chemistry
BA, Biochemistry

What got you in to history? Into equine history?

     I have wonderful memories of visiting museums and historical sites on family vacations during childhood. One summer I even spent a week at a camp run by a living history center in New Brunswick, Canada, pretending that I lived in the rural nineteenth century St. John River Valley (a program at Kings Landing – the place deserves some free advertising). So, despite studying biochemistry and chemistry in college, the history bug had burrowed deep. A college course on the history of scientific thought led me to further consider the history of science and how human beings have defined, studied, and interacted with the natural world… And this interest eventually led me to graduate school!

     Unlike perhaps most equine historians, I came to equine history through books – and not the Black Stallion series, either. In my first year or so at Notre Dame I stumbled across equine medical treatises from early modern Castile, and realized that studying the treatment of equines in the past would be a fruitful way to address my broader interests about human beings and nature.

Who is your favorite historical horse?

     If I may slightly adjust the question, I would instead like to identify my favorite historical mule: a gray mule born about 1547 and purchased by a shoemaker at the San Miguel fair in Nájera in September of 1552. Without too much exaggeration I can say that this was a celebrity mule of the shoemaker neighborhood in Logroño. Alas, the mule met an unfortunate end. I will reveal the full, sad story in my as-yet-in-progress dissertation; or, if you can’t wait, find me on the conference circuit! 

What are you working on right now?

      At the moment I am finishing my dissertation, which investigates the role of Crown-licensed equine doctors in curing equines in sixteenth-century Castile. Since many Castilians were familiar with equines and how to heal them, what set equine doctors apart? I compare evidence from theoretical equine medical treatises and lawsuits to determine the distinctive status and practices of these equine doctors as they cared for everyday, working animals. I argue that equine doctors were distinct from others who healed these animals because they more explicitly framed their work using learned medical theory, possessed particular legal functions, and performed specialized surgery. Their activities show that human and animal medicine diverged in practice despite shared medical theory. This project will not only be valuable to historians of science and medicine for its examination of lay and learned medical expertise in an Iberian context; what’s also really exciting about my sources is that they allow me to study actual horses, mules, and donkeys from this period. I am able to examine the different types of equine knowledge that people possessed, and how equine treatment varied by the work expected of these animals and economic context. Thus, the project will contribute to a nuanced understanding of human-equine relations during this period, and to conversations about the treatment of domesticated animals, in general.  

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#MemberMonday: Kathryn Renton

kathrynr
 Education

University of California, Los Angeles
PhD Candidate, History

MA, History

Harvard University
BA, History and Literature

 

What got you in to history? In to equine history?

     I think a family trip to a medieval walled village at an impressionable age first got me interested in history, and I’ve been fascinated with trying to imagine what life was like “back then” ever since. After majoring in History and Literature, I worked in the field of disaster relief for several years before thinking about returning to graduate school. I’ve always had an interest in culture, and reading travel literature and perceptions of “human-ness,” intelligence and emotion got me interested in the human-animal question. But when looking for a dissertation topic, it was the seeming loss of memory and/or familiarity with horses in recent historiography that got me thinking about horses in terms of historical methodology. Having dabbled in horseback riding in different traditions (hunter-jumper, dressage, wilderness horse-packing, trail rides — more or less any chance I could catch), I knew that the language, philosophy and forms of partnership varied in nuanced ways that were not commonly reflected in standard treatment of historical horses.

Who is your favorite historical horse?

     So many legendary horses… but as far as historical horses go I love the story of “Sergeant Reckless,” a Mongolian mare that became a mascot and companion for a Marine division during the Korean War, earning herself retirement and a statue at Camp Pendleton in 2016.


What are you working on right now?

     My current research examines the introduction of the horse to the Americas by the Spanish as part of the Columbian Exchange. I was very curious about the culture of the horse in Spain, well known especially in Andalusia, and the effects it had on strategies in expansion and conquest within the Iberian Peninsula and then across the Atlantic. By re-introducing modern, domesticated horses to the American continents, this moment provides a key test case for the impact of the horse in various realms of historical study.  In my dissertation, I argue that new forms of governance and new definitions of noble status in the early modern period bore the specific imprint of the horse. For example, structural elements of horse breeding in Spain directly influenced conquest and settlement strategies in the Americas, as well as shaping local forms of resistance in colonial society. Using archives from Spain, Mexico and Peru, this project foregrounds the role of experiential knowledge with animals and demonstrates negotiated limits of power that horses were used to represent in the developing early modern Spanish empire.  

#MemberMonday: Katrin Boniface

IMG_4719-001Education

University of California, Riverside
PhD student, Early Modern & Public History

California State University, Fresno
MA Medieval History, with distinction

SUNY Stony Brook
BA Medieval History & Literature, honors

Meredith Manor, Riding Master VI, with honors

What got you in to history? In to equine history?

     I had been running a barn, but I decided to go back to school in 2009. My first semester back, I took a medieval history class “for fun.” That class was with Dr. Sara Lipton, and I immediately changed majors (I had been a psych major). It was fun– she is a great story teller, and I enjoy the investigative aspects of history as a discipline– but it was also important. She made clear the connections to our own culture, and showed how history is important to understanding what it is to be human. I can also credit her with making me realize that history work was never done. In the process of writing my upper division historiography, I realized how sparse, and how problematic, academic literature on horses was. I never thought I’d go to grad school. I am a first generation graduate with a GED. But I loved teaching, and horse history research had been what I did in my spare time (read: bad weather) on the farm.

Who is your favorite historical horse?

     Younger me would have said Ruffian. In fact, she’s who I put for those “what famous person would you go back in time to meet” essays we’ve all had to write. She was fast, fiery, and unforgettable. These days, though, Bucephalus. The account of the taming of Bucephalus from Plutarch, regardless of its veracity, encapsules a valuable lesson in horsemanship (and teaching, for that matter). One of the training horses I had before returning to school ended up being nicknamed Bucephalus. He was a young Arabian, NBR Bakman Bey, and was in fact afraid of his own shadow. We worked through that quickly, he was also sweet and clever. But he kept having odd problems, to the point where I ended up riding him bridle-less for a while. It turned out he had had an ear infection the year before, and was still healing up. It was another reminder to listen.

What are you working on right now?

     My current project, which will be my dissertation, is on ideas of inheritance before Mendel, 1700-1866. It started out as a simple question– what were the genetics behind the unusual colors of the Hanoverian Cream and Hanoverian White– and I expected to look into the trade and political relationships between various stables. I did think the breeding choices behind those strain were more nuanced and informed than is usually credited, but I didn’t think this was particularly radical. However, while I was at the National Sporting Library this summer (I highly recommend them), I found that not only were breeding choices very thoroughly thought out, but inbreeding of any form was highly discouraged (unlike the following century). This turned the idea that early modern breeders simply bred “like to like” on its head. As well as the Whites and Creams, I will be looking at other livestock (cattle and sheep have particularly good records, and are credited by horsemen of this time with success from inbreeding, something the horsemen found startling and disturbing), and also at early American horse breeding, particularly the Morgan.

Find Kat here.

#MemberMonday: Meet Your Team

   At the International Medieval Congress, Leeds, in 2016 there were three panels on equestrian topics, and a few equine papers among a plentitude of animal history panels. Every presenter, even those from other fields or disciplines, said the same thing: they’d rarely met another equine historian, much less presented with a full group; the available literature was sparse and in need of updating; and finding scholars to collaborate with who understood both the equine and the historical aspects was nearly impossible. Now, we plan to change that. Meet the team behind the Equine History Collective:

Katrin Boniface, University of California, Riverside
Kat Boniface is a Ph.D. student at the University of California, Riverside, studying horses and horsemanship in early modern Europe, with a background in medieval literature. Prior to returning to academics, she earned a trade degree in horse training from Meredith Manor International Equestrian Centre. Current research areas include medieval and early modern equine nutrition, changing definitions of “humane” treatment in animal training, and genetic history.

Kathryn Renton, University of California, Los Angeles
Kathryn Renton is a Ph.D. Candidate at the University of California, Los Angeles, studying horse breeding in the early modern Spanish empire (1490s-1580s). Her research considers how the practices of horse breeding contributed to the vocabulary of race (raza) and caste (casta), considering the shared concepts of generation and reproduction that were used to explain hereditary features among human and animal populations, and the role of the horse in symbolizing and embodying social distinctions in the early modern period.

Janice Gunther Martin, University of Notre Dame
Janice G. Martin is a Ph.D. Candidate in History at the University of Notre Dame, where she is currently a graduate fellow at the Notre Dame Institute for Advanced Study. With a background in biochemistry and chemistry, her interests include early modern science and medicine, and how human beings have defined and interacted with the natural world more broadly. Her dissertation examines equine medicine in sixteenth-century Castile, especially the practices of equine doctors (albéitares).

Lelian Maldonado, University of California, Riverside
Lelian Maldonado is a Ph.D. student at the University of California, Riverside, studying cultural memory and civic identity in the material landscape and archaeological record. Recent projects have included depictions of racehorse owners in Aristophanes as well as the many reproductions and symbolic uses of the Equestrian Statue of Marcus Aurelius.

Alyse Yeargan, University of California, Riverside
Alyse Yeargan is a Ph.D. student at the University of California, Riverside, studying museum education, and is the 2017 Gluck Fellow at the California Museum of Photography. Her equine historical focus is sport and gender, particularly the early modern and modern development of competition riding attire.

     And of course, Anastasija Ropa and Timothy Dawson, who orginized the Medieval Equestrianism panels at Leeds 2016, and again this year. Anastasija Ropa is a lecturer at the Latvian Academy of Sport Education, and also orginized an equestrian panel at the International Arthurian Congress this year, and is spearheading the publication of a collected work based on the Leeds panels. The call for papers for this session at Leeds 2018 is up!