Another returning sponsor this year is the UCLA 17th & 18th Century Studies Center. They sponsor fellowships, workshops, and conferences (like ours), and also now offer a certificate in Early Modern Studies for UCLA graduate students across disciplines. They are currently running an international project, including exhibits and research, on empire, colonization, and the development of the modern transnational world.
The panel will be at 9:00a.m. on Thursday November 14th, opening the second day of the conference. It will be chaired by Alyssa V. Loera from Cal Poly Pomona. This is a new feature this year, and we are delighted to include more methodological variety for investigating the past. Two of these papers have agreed to allow livetweeting, so if you can’t make it in person be sure to follow the #EqHist2019 tag on Twitter!
The Artistic Representation of Pizarro’s horse: Reality vs. Myth
María Martín-Cuervo, Universidad de Extremadura, on behalf of Francisco Javier Cambero Santano, Universidad de Extremadura
Horses symbolize power in most cultures that count this animal among their domesticates. The shortage of horses made them a very limited resource in the combat, and that only the Spanish of greater rank could have them. The figure of Francisco Pizarro, except for some portraits, always appears connected to a horse. From different examples that have been taken as a sample, both figures will be analyzed to see the differences between reality and current visual perception.
It can be considered that the horses that arrived to the Viceroyalty of Peru had the following physical characteristics: low height, rustic and with small feet and resistant hoofs, rectilinear or slightly convex head outline and low insertion of the tail.
The drawings before the 17th century showed Francisco Pizarro standing in front of Atahualpa, like an infantry soldier, and in the later representations, he always appears on a horse, often with a chestnut coat and with the morphology of the current Andalusian Horses (PRE-Pura Raza Española). This fact may be due to the need to represent the conquerors as great warriors, instead of adjusting to the historical reality, which describes the conquerors as men from poor families, who conquered territories after suffering many hardships.
Revisiting the Iberian Origins of the North American Horses: Approaching the Two Sides of the Atlantic Ocean Combining Ancient DNA and Historical Registries from the Colonial Era
Jaime LiraGarrido, Universidad de Extremadura and Centro Mixto UCM-ISCIII de Evolución Comportamiento Humanos
Horses were brought from Iberia to the New World by Christopher Columbus in 1493. Theoretically, they had primitive characteristics and it is thought they became the founding breeding stock of the Colonial Spanish Horse. Subsequent generations were a major influence in the colonization of North America by Europeans and forever changed the culture of Native Americans. The status of the Colonial Spanish is considered threatened. Other North American populations with high percentages of Colonial Spanish Horse influence are found in wild horse herds managed by Federal Agencies, who need scientific guidance with management practices.
There are genetic links between modern North American and Spanish horse populations. Studies of ancient DNA have strengthened these links, although genetic backgrounds of many ancient and modern horses differ.Many different horse breeds arrived from Europe to North America during the last 500 years. Surprisingly, no studies have been performed yet about the dispersal of the domestic horses in America during the Colonial period.
The purpose of this project is to characterize the genetics of the horse migratory waves in North America during the last 500 years and check these results with historical documents housed in the General Archive of the Indies (Spain) and other repositories in Spain and Mexico. This information will allow the identification of the descendants of those first Spanish horses brought to the New World and the origin of some North American Mustang populations. Further, it will aid in the conservation of the Colonial Spanish Horse by placing scientific decisions.
The Iron Age Sacrificed Horses from the Iberian Tartessic ‘Turuñuelo de Guareña’ Site Badajoz, Spain: Preliminary Study
María Martín-Cuervo, Universidad de Extremadura
The archaeological site of Casas del Turuñuelo (Badajoz, Spain) represents to date the most numerous collections of faunal remains of Iron Age horses from the Iberian Peninsula. This architectonic complex is associated with the Tartessic culture. The excavation works at the site uncovered more than fifty horses, some of them in anatomical connection, sacrificed and disposed of on a patio in the main temple.
The Tartessic culture was originated from the interaction between Iberian indigenous communities living in the South-West of the Iberian Peninsula and the Phoenicians that established trading centers on the coast during the Iron Age.
This work presents the preliminary archaeological results and the multidisciplinary approach undertaken on this extraordinary assemblage of ancient specimens, which constitutes a milestone discovery across the West Mediterranean area and a singular opportunity to characterize the equine population sacrificed at the site.
The Genetics of Curly Coated Horses
Mitch Wilkinson, ICHO/ Curly Mustang Association
Ever since horse domestication, horses have been traded, shipped, and ridden in conquest from one area to another. It is possible that the genetic material which produces curly coated horses may have been seeded into some populations by introduction of curly coated horses from other locations. It is equally possible that many horse populations developed curly coats due to natural selection and random mutations.
There are six distinct types of curly coated horses known in North America and at least one type in the feral herds in South America. In Asia, horses with curly coats are associated with the Zabaikalskaya breed in Siberia and the Lokai breed of Tajikistan. Horses with curly coats are also found in Mongolia. There may yet be other types of horses found with curly coats in their populations that are undiscovered in forgotten and remote parts of the world.
The EHC’s annual meeting will be held Thursday, November 14, 3:15pm–4:45pm in the Grand Reading Room of the University Library at Cal Poly Pomona as part of the 2019 Equine History Conference. Items to be discussed include:
- 2019 in review
- 2020 goals, including the conference at SUNY-Old Westbury
- Our new formalized membership plan
- Upcoming elections for president, secretary, and treasurer
Ideas and visions of the future of EHC are invited and welcome, along with nominations for the officer positions.
Curious about last year’s meeting? Visit https://equinehistory.wordpress.com/2018/12/31/equine-history-collective-annual-meeting-2018/ for the discussion digest.
The panel will be at 1:15p.m. on Wednesday November 13th, following the tour of the W.K. Kellogg Arabian Horse Library. It will be chaired by Brinna Pam Anan from Cal Poly Pomona and feature Frank Whitehead and Kathryn Renton. This panel has agreed to allow livetweeting, so if you can’t make it in person be sure to follow the #EqHist2019 tag on Twitter!
“The Two are Pardners”: Rodeo Cowboys, Their Horses, and a Distinctly Western Relationship
Frank Whitehead, University of Arizona
This paper examines the history of horses trained specifically for timed events in twentieth century rodeos and their complex relationships with human riders, trainers, and spectators. Timed events as competition/performance in rodeo originated from and emulated the daily tasks of horses and cowboys on Western cattle ranches. Rodeo competitors, like their rancher predecessors, utilized a continuous process of selective breeding and training in order to produce ideal horses for very specialized tasks. Timed event contestants sought out particular horses from a select few prominent bloodlines that displayed certain desired behavioral traits. These traits were employed and reinforced by contestants through specialized and repetitive training. Despite the significant control they wielded over nearly every aspect of their horses’ lives, contestants discursively constructed the identity of their horses as devoted partners. The representation of timed event horses as dedicated companions appealed to rodeo consumers, and thus was often appropriated and commodified by rodeo producers for use in advertisements, programs, and memorials of famous horses. This paper argues that the social relationship between horse and rider, and the constructed identity of the timed event horse as a committed partner, were crucial elements in the promotion, performance, and perception of rodeo as representational of an idealized, imagined West.
Riding Like a Moor: Light Cavalry Horsemanship and the ‘Military Revolution’
Kathryn Renton, University of California, Los Angeles
It is fitting that the opening panel of the conference will be dedicated to Arabian history, in light of our phenomenal host the W.K. Kellogg Arabian Horse Library and returning sponsor the W.K. Kellogg Arabian Horse Center.
The panel will be at 9 a.m. on Wednesday November 13th, chaired by Jennifer Bidwell from Cal Poly Pomona and featuring Margaret Derry, John Schiewe, and Tobi Lopez Taylor. This panel has agreed to allow livetweeting, so if you can’t make it in person be sure to follow the #EqHist2019 tag on Twitter!
Pedigrees, Purity, and Breed: The World Arabian Horse Organization versus the Arabian Horse Registry of America in the Orchestration of Trade, 1970-2000
Margaret Derry, University of Guelph
It is difficult to see horse bodies outside the framework of “breed”; even though many animals are (and always have been) crossbred. The purebred system of pedigreeing has come to define “breeds”, and to shape desired phenotypic types. Pedigrees are also vitally important to trade in horse body-types. Patterns in the purebred trade of Arabian horses over the late 20 th century provide an example of how pedigrees and pedigree standards can orchestrate an international market for a “breed”. The history of the Arabian horse industry shows that first, pedigree standards could shape, not simply an international market but rather a global one; second, animal body-type generated outside the purebred method had to be forced into it because of the system’s marketing power; and third, translating an Eastern-produced horse into a Western purebred horse brought with it complicated concepts concerning purity. When it came to the Arabian, purity implied authenticity to Eastern type and breeding, while Western-style pedigrees were to provide authorization of that fact. Affairs in the Arabian horse world make it clear that these pedigree standards/markets issues caused havoc with respect to what quality or purity – let alone type – meant in relation to pedigrees. In this presentation I focus on the conflict that developed between the World Arabian Horse Organization (WAHO) and the Arabian Horse Registry of America (AHRA) over how to preserve the purity of the breed, how to define purity, and how pedigrees could or should designate either – all issues important in the market for Arabians.
Pioneering American Breeders of Pure Polish Arabians, 1961–1985: An Examination of “Best Practices”
John Schiewe, Andrzejevo Associates
The period from 1961 to 1985 can be called the Golden Age of Polish Arabian breeding in the United States, a time when these horses dominated the show ring at the local and national level. Inspired by the work of Roman Pankiewicz, who comprehensively researched every Arabian horse breeder in Poland between the World Wars, this paper examines the breeding programs of a number of pioneering American breeders of Polish Arabians, including Lasma Arabians, Varian Arabians, Four Winds Farm, Nichols-Delongpre, and Patterson Arabians. Some of the breeders under discussion left excellent verbal or written records for their breeding rationales. For those who left no written statements, the quality horses they produced can often “speak” for themselves.
More than thirty years have passed since the Arabian horse market in the United States collapsed, owing to changing tax laws and overproduction of horses, and the majority of the well-known Polish Arabian breeding programs from that time period have ceased to exist. Today, the registration numbers for Arabian foals in the United States are much reduced compared to the 1980s. In addition, the State Stud Farms of Poland are in a documentable period of crisis. This paper examines the “best practices” of certain past breeders that should be considered in order to advance the quality of Arabian breeding across the globe.
Politics and Pedigrees: America’s Cold War-Era Arabian Horse Registration Debacle
Tobi Lopez Taylor, Independent Scholar
How do political conflict and human prejudice affect perceptions of a horse’s value? This paper examines how global and personal politics impacted importation of Russian Arabians to the United States during part of the Cold War era (1963–1978).
Many of today’s Arabians descend from horses bred at Tersk, the Russian stud farm established during the 1920s. The Tersk breeding program incorporated Arabians from France, Poland, Egypt, and England’s Crabbet Stud. By the 1960s, when the first Soviet-bred Arabians were imported, Americans had been buying registered Arabians from other countries, including Poland, for decades. And Poland had been purchasing bloodstock from Tersk since 1955. However, only one of the first seven Russian-bred Arabians imported to the US between 1963 and 1965 was accepted by the Arabian Horse Registry of America (AHRA); one reason given for that horse’s acceptance was that it had been used for breeding in Poland (a communist satellite state of the USSR since 1947). The other imports (some of which were closely related to the horse accepted by AHRA) were denied registration for various reasons, including AHRA’s questioning the “purity” of their bloodlines and, significantly, AHRA’s reluctance to “do business with the Russians.”
It was not until 1978 that AHRA lifted its ban on Russian Arabians and retroactively allowed registration of the remaining 1960s imports. Using recently obtained primary documents, this paper discusses the unintended consequences of AHRA’s decisions, demonstrating how changing American attitudes toward Russia influenced the US Arabian horse community’s acceptance of Russian-bred horses.
The W.K. Kellogg Arabian Horse Center, a historic site and breeding program on campus, is a returning sponsor of the Equine History Conference. Don’t miss Friday’s “Unconference” 8:30-9:00a.m. for a chance to learn more about the Kellogg Arabians, the Pomona Quartermaster’s Depot, equine movie stars, and the many other roles the program and its horses have held over the past century.
In the “Unconference” session, join us over breakfast to informally discuss your latest projects, get feedback from your peers, and meet legendary author Mary Jane Parkinson. Mary Jane Parkinson, longtime co-editor of Arabian Horse World and author of The Romance of the Kellogg Ranch: A Celebration of the Kellogg/Cal Poly Pomona Arabian Horse, 1925-2000 among numerous other publications, will be on-hand to sign copies of her books and to talk with conference attendees about her experiences in the horse industry. Copies of The Romance of the Kellogg Ranch will be available for purchase and proceeds will go to support the W.K. Kellogg Arabian Horse Center.
There’s still time to register for the second annual Equine History Conference! Due to technical difficulties, the registration deadline has been extended to Thursday, November 7th. Register at https://squareup.com/store/equine-history-collective.
Besides a fantastic line-up of panelists, the conference includes:
- Keynote by Sandra Swart
- Breakfast and book-signing with Mary Jane Parkinson, longtime co-editor of Arabian Horse World and author of The Romance of the Kellogg Ranch: A Celebration of the Kellogg/Cal Poly Pomona Arabian Horse, 1925-2000
- Tour of the W.K. Kellogg Arabian Horse Library
- Tour of the W.K. Kellogg Arabian Horse Center
- Private tour of the Lasker Collection of the Huntingon Library on Saturday, Nov. 16
- Fabulous raffles items, including equine history books and items for the barn!
If you have trouble registering, email EquineHistory@gmail.com